Islamic religion and the culture | Literally, Islam means “devotion to God,” more specifically to Allah, the One God. Those who practice such devotion and submit themselves to the will of Allah are Muslims. The profession of belief in the One God and in Muhammad as his Prophet. And Islamic Relegion exact meaninig is peace! To whom God has revealed his message for mankind as it isdescribed in the Koran.
The holy book of Islam unites Muslims throughout the world. Obedience to the five main duties, or “pillars” of Islam, as well as the use of classical Arabic for all religious purposes. It forms the religious bond of the Muslim community. So what is the islamic religion ?
Islamic religion means being aware of the omnipresence of God. In whose hands human beings place themselves and in whose mercy they trust, knowing God to be just and compassionate. Mankind is capable or allows such action. Islam is the actually regards itself as a revival of a they trust, knowing God to be just and compassionate.
Please read Koran with open heart and far from prejeduce!
What is the islamic religion?
Mankind is capable of acting for itself only if God wills or allows such action. Islam is the youngest world religion. (although it actually regards itself as a revival of an ancient monotheistic religion that had existed from very ancient times). Its early success and the speed with which the religion spread even to non-Arab cultures. Immediately after the death of Muhammad, make it unique in religious history.
Within the bond of a common religion, many distinctive local, cultural and ethnic features developed quite early since Islam constantly absorbed elements of the cultures it had conquered or converted. At the same time, however there were also recurrent episodes of religious schism, the most importantand far-reaching of these was the split between Shiites and Sunnis.
As a result of this, Islam may be described as “diversity within unity.” Between the Maghreb in the west, parts of China and Southeast Asia in the east, the entre Arab. And Persian area, and parts of northern Africa in the south as well as an increasingly strong presence in Europe. Islamic culture is a combination of unity and variety which enables it to remain dynamic and alive. And giving it a prominent position among the religions and cultures of the world.
Islamic Religion and Arabic Culture,
The Arab cultural area, ancient Arabia and its cultural development The Arabian peninsula has a very long tradition of settlement, although research into the subject has only just begun, since archeologists have excavated relatively few sites.
Ancient Arabian culture is best documented in the Hadramawt region and the rest of the Yemen, and in the southern Arabian peninsula. Where mighty buildings or their ruins and the sites of fortresses testify to the splendor of the ancient Arabian Mina kingdom (4th-1st centuries B.c.) with its center of Qarnawu, the Qatabanian kingdom (5th-1st centuries B.C.), and the Sabaean kingdom (10th century B.C.-3rd century can also be found in the Arabian peninsula Fertile Crescent.
An area of 3 million square kilometers at it was, and still is, only sparsely populated. In the north, ancient Arabia shared a border and in the south it met the Indian Ocean.
Traces of early civilizations can also be found in the Arabian peninsula that reveal influences from the Fertile Crescent. The Arabian peninsula comprises an area of 3 million square kilometers (1.2 million square miles). But it was, and still is, only sparsely populated because of its vast areas of desert.
Mesopotamia and islamic religion!
In the north, ancient Arabia shared a border with Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), and in the south it met the Indian Ocean Monsoon rain from the sea fell. On the mountain ranges in the south of the peninsula, making the Yemen and Oman fertile regions which have been permanently settled since very early times. The mountain slopes here were terraced and supplied with water by highly developed irrigation systems. And as a result extensive arable farming could develop.
In the desert, on the other hand, there are only a few isolated fertile oases with date palms and sparse gracing for the nomads herds. Rainfall is also very irregular above the mountains in the south, and there are prolonged periods of drought.
From early times, consequently, there was a great gulf between the sedentars, prosperous Arabs of the south and the impoverished seminomads of the desert, although the latter profired by the through traffic of caravans.
The prosperous southern Arabs ficted out merchant ships, made good use of the monsoon winds, and engaged in flourishing foreign trade, particularly with the Malabar coast of India.The Mesopotamian kingdoms to the northeast, and the kingdom of Egypt in the northwest (first mentioned in the records in 2100 B.C.).
The goods traded were chiefly spices and incense. The camel caravans of the “Incense Road,” as it is called, which had trading intersections distributed over the entire Arabian peninsula, also brought a certain prosperity to the semi-nomadic caravan traders. Certain desert cities and oases, and so to the northern regions. Arabia thus became the hub of trade between east and west at an early period. And exerted significant influence on the cultural development of the Mediterranean area.
Region of Kingdoms,
In the 6th century B.C. Arabia was regarded as part of the Persian kingdom of the Achaemenid dynasty, which founded the province of Arabiya in 539 B.C. Thereafter, southern Arabia saw the rise of a great number of kingdoms, most of them on the western coast. On the border with Palestine lay the kingdom of the Nabataeans of Petra. Whose cultural wealth was founded on trade; art was in its prime there between the 4th century B.C. and the 1st century A.D.
When the region was annexed by the Roman empire in 106, it achieved great prosperity under the relatively mild rule of its Roman overlords. The best-known example is probably the semi-independent kingdom of Palmyra, although it overestimated its power when in the 3rd century, under Queen Zenobia. it challenged Rome and was crushed by the emperor Aurelian.
Islamic Religion, Great Powers!
After profiting from the extension and improvement of the trade routes carried out by the Roman administration, Arabia found itself increasingly positioned between two hostile fronts, as the great powers of Rome. And later Byzantium, opposed their adversaries, the newly strengthened Persian kingdoms of the Sassanians and Parthians.
After the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. a certain military stalemate set in. Both great powers – Byzantium and the Sassanian Persians – were anxious to create butlier states ruled by Arab vassals, who were bound to perform military service for their overlords, in exchange for cultural independence under their protection.
On the Persian side, those involved were the Lakhmids, with Hira, their capital, near Kufa. And on the Byzantine side, the Christian Ghassanids, with their capital Basra. The Arab tribes on both sides learned a great deal about the techniques of warfare and fortification from these great powers. And acquired knowledge which would be of significance later on for the military
successes of Muhammad and early Islam.
“Oriental despotism” – forms of government in the region The “irrigation states,” a term used for the early advanced civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, had in common. As the earliest development of a logical concept of the state, the form of government described by K. A. Wittfogel as “Oriental despotism.” Many institutions found in early Islamic religion kingdoms can
be interpreted as descended from and succeeding ancient oriental forms of government and administration. This is especially true of the centralized rule of the caliphs, more particularly in the caliphate of the Abbasids.
These states shared a common interest in the extensive exploitation of water. And the local inundations that left the fertile mud of the Nile, the Euphrates. And the Tigris behind when they receded. Artificial irrigation by canals rivers and the system left behind of dam-building under the centralized administration, were pre-conditions of the prosperous agrarian culture that went hand in hand with such methods.
The basis of the economy of these states was self-sufficiency, social division of labor. And the performance of compulsory services, and technical progress, rapid at first. Later stagnating to an increasing extent, particularly in the development of tools.
Within these states, the outcome was the construction of central cities. protected by the army, with strier urban administration. And large markets in which to trade goods such as pottery and craft products were bought and sold. While rigorous police supervision guaranteed public order and the security of commercial dealings.
Class societies developed on the basis of small patriarchal family and professional distinctions, and thus urban and middle classes and upper classes formed. Urban administration was the task of professional civil servants organized in a strict and official hierarchy of well-defined areas of
responsibility: in essence a fully-fledged bureaucracy.
Administration and legislation were centralized and, a precisely-adjusted system of taxation governed the distribution of goods. And there was constant expansion of the supply and exploitation of cultivated plants. Although the keeping of livestock was hardly practiced at all, and was essentially the prerogative of the ruling class.
Political rule was based on theocratic foundations: the sovereign was sacrosanct because of his supposed function of mediating with the divine powers, which he demonstrated at the celebration of urban religious events, through the ceremonial calendar, and as a leader in war. He was usually regarded as the son in the divine hierarchy, and in line with ideas of religious absolutism, his rule was considered cosmic law.
God-kings or priest-kings ruled the Egyptians and Sumerians. Divine worship in temples and the presence of palaces made the capitals of these kingdoms national centers.
The temples also served as granaries for the storage of provisions, and goods were often directly distributed by the administrative staff of the temple, an office which increased their power.
Luxury surrounded rulers, magnificent buildings, and an increasingly complex court ceremonial. As a result, they became more and more remote from the common people, while their bodyguards and close advisers gained increasing political power.
A strictly organized army, quartered in barracks and divided into infantry and cavalry (or the drivers of war chariots), provided the ruler with a military fighting power that could be mobilized at any time to enforce his claims to dominion.
Early ideas and innovations in the sciences inclined strongly toward their practical and technological aspects: hydraulic engineering, the development of weapons of war, mathematics, geometry, astronomy, medicine, and magic were the subjects of predominant or sole interest. Common features of the states ruled by oriental despotism were economic prosperity, usually considerable, together with ever-increasing stagnation in the field of social policy.
Islamic Religion, The prophet Muhammad in his world The milieu of Muhammad,
The extreme climatic and natural conditions of Arabia meant that before Muhammad. it was only on the periphery of the great cultural center of the Those centers regarded it as a barbaric place inhabited by Bedouin (oomade Arabs of the descru), and sought to exploit its meager resources for their own advantage. With the spread of the cultures of Iraq, Palestine, and Syria, however, intellectual and spiritual life – particularly Judaism and Christianity made an impact on the Arab area.
A considerable number of Jewish family groups emigrated to Arabia after the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70, and again after the Bar Kochba rebellion of A.D. 135. They formed a culture of their own there, and in some cities they were strongly represented. Before the advent of Muhammad, for instance, half the inhabitants of Medina (still known as Yathrib at the time) were Jews.
They became assimilated to the Arab lifestyle, but remained exclusive in their religion, holding fast to their monotheism and their unshakeable awareness of their identity as a chosen people even in a polytheistic environment.
Some comments about early islam,
The influence of Christianity was felt even more strongly in the Arab area, more particularly through the sovereignty of Byzantium over Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Abyssinia, and the trading nomadic tribes of central Arabia, were Christian too. This oriental Christianity was under the authority of the Syrian church, and several characteristic features distinguished it from western
Many of Muhammad’s later utterances can be seen as evidence that he became acquainted with Christianity through the Copts of Egypt and other monophysites (adherents of the doctrine of the single nature of Christ).
A number of apocryphal writings were current in the area at the time, and examples were known in Arabia of the often extremist forms of desert monasticism practiced by the anchorites. Since the ancient Arabian polytheistic faith had already lost its hold, during Muhammad’s youth Arabia looked like becoming mainly Christian.
Islamic Religion, Ancient Arabian!
The ancient Arabian faith and the pilgrimage to Mecca The period of the ancient Arabian polytheistic faith is described in Islam the time of ignorance Gahiliya). The Arabs originally seemed to have a cult of nature and the heavenly bodies, centering on the sun, the moon, and the evening stan and the meteorite known as the Black Stone, still in the Kaaba in Meca, may be regarded as a part of this cult. The inale pod Hubul was worshipped in Mecca the center of the ancient Arabian religion.
Although the way Arslan definitely monotheistic the lady showed uden in the cena several passages in the Konsubu Muhammast in his youth wrestled extensively with ideas that Ansten Araba hecht is of the weekers after God” (Hanatis) who had given up polythetem and dead
In 630 Muhammad “cleansed” the Kaaba, by having all its idols removed. Countless cult objects had been venerated in ancient Mecca, and a considerable number of magical and ritual practices were celebrated. The statements made in the Koran about the world of spirits, and angels and jinn, also derive from the ancient Arabian tradition. Muhammad’s efforts in the Koran to distinguish between the prophets and those mere soothsayers, seers, and magicians who used the world of spirits for their own ends, suggest that ancient Arab practices survived into
the Islamic period.
The life of Muhammad,
Muhammad was born in Mecca around the year 570. His father had died before the boy’s birth, and his mother died when he was six. Muhammad was brought up first by his grandfather and then (around 578) by his uncle, Abu Talib, who was his protector until Abu died in 619. Muhammad became a caravan driver, and at the age of about 25 married the prosperous widow Khadija, 20 years his senior, to whom he was a faithful and loving husband, until her death in 619.
The couple had three sons and four daughters, but all the sons died in infancy. Around the year 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad had his first experience of religious vocation. This dramatic event is featured in sura 96 of the Koran, the oldest of the suras, and in this passage he is commanded by the angel of the Lord to “Read!” (or “Recite!” – igra.).
After a period of introspection, accompanied by self-doubt and depression, Muhammad accepted his mission as the “messenger of God” (rasul allah). He preached to the Meccans on his visions, warning mankind against social indifference, and against making material aims
the main object of life. He also opposed the polytheism of the ancient Arabian religion, in particular the idea of the association with the One God Allah of subsidiary gods, or God’s children (the concept known as shirk).
Muhammad’s position was increasingly difficult in Mecca after 620, since he became more and more intolerant in his opposition to heathen polytheism, and his enemies mocked and derided him for his beliefs. In this situation, Muhammad and his followers decided to emigrate (the hegira) to Medina in 622. a date that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
On arriving in Medina, Muhammad was transformed from an admonitory preacher into a
farsighted statesman and political arbitrator: he drew up a system of government for the new Muslim community in 623, and made contact with the large Jewish community of Medina. Although at first the two religious communities coexisted by agreement, the final outcome was the expulsion of the Jews from Medina.
When his attempts to convert them failed. Muhammad became incteasingly embittered and intolerant toward Judaism. Although he adopted a great many of its religious ideas – in particular interpreting Abraham as an early Muslim. A prototype of the propher and monotheistic seeker after God (Hanif). And crediting him with building the Kaaba in Mecca as a place devoted to the worship of the One God (Allah). However, in 624 Muhammad changed the traditional direction toward which the devout turned in prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca.
Islamic religion never accepts dual or more gods so it refuses all kind of idols!
Between 625 and 630 there were a number of armed conflicts with the Meccans, with both sides attacking each other’s caravans, and Muhammad also proved himself a gifted military commander. Particularly in what was known as the “War of the Trench.”. The suras of the Koran from the Medina period testify to the self-confidence felt at this time by Muhammad and the Muslims.
Who naturally assumed their success in warfare to be God’s work. More particularly, however, Muhammad consolidated his community by skilfully smooth ingewer the dangerous tensions between the “old believers” from Mecca. His for adherents, and the new believers from Medina and its surroundings.
Finally, in January (39), he entered his native city of Mecca Victorious, and on the whole showed clemency to his former opponents. He cleansed the Mekke of the worship of idols and declared the pilgrimage to Mecca a Muslim nuon. On June 8.32, shortly after his “Farewell pilgrimage” to Mecca in March of the same year. And still planning expeditions to conquer Byzantium
und Persia, Mohamed after a short illness, died in Medina.
Islamic Relegion, Seal of the Prophets!
Muhammad’s view of himself – the “Seal of the Prophets” Muhammad was utterly convinced of the truth of his revelations. And from that conviction he developed his sense of mission, which became particularly strong after the begira to Medina.
The Prophet’s position, as leader of the Muslim community, was based on the authority of
divine revelation, and his own personality. From the first, he understood the Muslim faith, not primarily as an introspective religion. But one with a sociopolitical (and later a national”) mission, so that religion and politics were inseparable in the early Islamic period. An attitude still evident today.
Muhammad made treaties, but did not shrink from waging religious wars. He acted as an arbitrator in disputes, punished enemies and apostates (the hypocrites”). And claimed political power for himself and his community.
Islamic Religion means Only one god!
To understand Islamic religion’s awareness of itself and the cultural sense of superiority felt by Muslims. Particularly during the Middle Ages, we must remember that Muhammad did not think he was founding a new religion. But simply restoring the original monotheistic faith that had existed since ancient times. And that he saw himself as the last in a long line of prophets who had all bome witness to the same religion of the One God.
In the Islamic religion mind. God made his covenant with Adams progeny. Particularly Noah: Abraham was regarded as the first prophet, testifying to the anity and sole existence of the One God. Moscs was considered the law giver and bringer of the Torah. And Jesus was seen as a great preacher and outstanding propher who spread the gospel. And was Muhammad’s direct
precursor With Muhammad, the “Seal of the Prophets,”.
The series reached is end, and the revelation of God through the prophets was complete. In Muhammad’s opinion, The One Truth had been revealed to lows and Christians, but they had distorted or ignored it. Through him, it would now appear in a new and radiant light.